xil = leaf, medicine
no english equivalent
word beginnings include:
xa, xaa, xi, xii, xu, xuu, xwaa, xwii, xyaa
- small object (dimensionality irrelevant), small amount
- small sound
- with difficulty; barely; lightly
’Laa ’la stla xatl’agan. He poked her lightly with his finger.
Nang ’la xadiyaayaan. He barely managed to kill one. He was lucky to kill one.
Hahlgwii ’la xadaalgang. He is coming this way very slowly.
’La xat’uugagan. She talked in a small voice.
Sguusiid ’la ki xa.aats’agan. She put a small bit of potato in her mouth.
- manage to get
Staw ’la xaadang.idaan. He managed to get some sea urchins.
- (v) breathe in and swallow
Stl’e.elt’agwaang Hl xaahlda xa.aats’agan. I breathed in and swallowed a mosquito.
- itch slightly; tickle; make itch slightly
Dii kaganjuu xaa.ldaang. My throat has a tickle.
Dii gudangee ’la kil xaa.ldagan. He annoyed me with his talking.
habitually tickle; habitually itch slightly
xaal kun sdagaa
(n) neck ring of twisted copper wire
- big 1-dimensional extended thin object
’La gyuu ’wii xaamxaawga. His big ears stick out.
Ya.aats’ ’la xaamganggang. He is holding a big knife.
- breathe in (small object flying or floating in the air; insect, feather, etc.)
Stle.elt’agwaang Hl xaamdagan. I breathed in a fly.
- try to lasso something; try to catch something with a noose.
- catch with a noose; lasso
Skawga ’la xaandagan. He tried to catch a grouse with a noose.
Skaw ’la xaandagan. He caught a grouse with a noose.
- have a noose on
Hliingee ’la tla xaandawee.eehl’waasdluu... When they had put a noose on the spruce root (line)...
- from the north
- at the northern end or side of something
Xáa.uguusd.uu ’la ’istl’a.agan. He arrived from the north.
’Lanngee xáa.uguusd.uu ’la nuwaang. He is living at the northern end of the town.
- (dir) light come through (in direction)
Waajeed.uu xaayaagalgang. Light is coming through (the trees) from shoreward over there (ie. the beach, river, etc. must be there).
Gii xaayaatl’a.aas ’la kinggan. He saw light was coming through the trees (ie there was some sort of clearing).
- a bit, a little
Diinaa ’la stla xa.áydaan. He snitched mine.
Galansdla xa.áydang. A few (berries) are ripe now.
K’waay huu.is diig suuda xa.áyd. Please tell me again.
’La kang.a xa.áydaan. He had a short dream.
be northeast wind; blow from the northeast
blow from the northeast now
- bladed tool with sharp blade; big ears that stick out
- fast object; fast
Ya.ats’ee diiga ’la xabsdlagan. He handed me the sharp knife.
Xi.u k’i xabjuu. A sharp saw.
’La xi xabyuwagwaanggang. He is running around fast.
Tl’a xi xab’adiits’agan. They ran inside fast.
- (v) yak to someone without thinking
Dii.aa ’la xabgulagan. He was yakking away to me without thinking.
- be eager eating
’Laa ga taasdluu ’la xab.idaganggang. He is always eager when he eats.
- finish rapidly
’Laa ga taa xabsdlagan. She finished eating right away.
Gandlee sk’alldasdla xabsdlagan. The water boiled right away.
- move eyes around fast and hungrily; look around hungrily (child)
’La xabsiidgwaanggang. He is looking around hungrily.
- kind of keep an eye on someone/something
GidaangGaa xangang ’la xagaddaang. She is kind of keeping an eye on her child.
- (v) be tight with; be stingy with (money)
Daalee ’aa ’la k’áa xagánggang. She is tight with her money.
- whip, beat soapberries into foam
Tl’a xagutl’adaang. They are whipping up soapberries.
- have soapberry foam on
’La sk’iw.ii xagutl’adaagang. His whiskers have soapberry foam on them.
soapberry (fruit of shepherdia canadensis)
soapberries dried in cakes
- be shiny; sparkle
K’a.áyhlt’agee xahl sk’a.aawgang. The stars are bright (lit. sticking off bright).
Stlíihluwee ’laa xahl hlkil-l-ljuugang. Her (diamond) ring sparkles.
Gaayuwee xahl tl’aganggang. The water is sparkling.
- shine; polish
Stlagee ’aa ’la tla xahldagan. She shined up her bracelet.
xahl Gajaa.u kiihlgaa
large tin-plated shallow pan
tin pot with bail handle
- xahl sk’ajaawee
tin (ie steel) sheet; sheet metal
- xahl tl’ajaawee
be made of tin sheet, have tine sheet on
- have a stockade or wall around; be walled
’Lanngee xajaagang. The town has a wall.
- with heat
- with power, with an engine
Tsiinee xal jaadagaang. The salmon is sizzling in the frying pan.
Dii xalsgiidan. I was driven back by the heat.
Hl xal Gaydan. I sped away.
- be gone to coals
- be coals in location
Xal.awaagang. It has gone to coals.
Hawaan Gaa xal.awaagang. There are still coals in there (stove).
- turn brown and hang down
Madalaawee xal gusdlaang. The thimbleberry leaves are yellow and hanging down now.
have turned brown and started to hang down
puff up with heat
- get sunstroke; faint from heat
’La xal sa.aayaan. He got sunstroke.
be in pain from swallowing food that is too hot
- be afraid of something/someone; be afraid to have anything to do with something/someone; want to avoid something/someone
- have a feeling that something bad will happen
’Laaga tl’a xaljuugang. People are afraid of him.
Xileega dii xaljuugang. I am afraid of the medicine.
Dii k’aangal xaljuugang. I have a feeling something bad will happen.
be feared, forbidden, taboo
- something/someone be feared
Gaa tlaagageega xaljuwaagang. People are afraid to touch it.
- render (oil or fat, animal or fish)
Masmuus Gaay ’la xalwiidaang. She is rendering some beef (cow) fat.
- fin (generic) of true fish (not cetaceans)
’Waagyaan ’la xammsk’al Gaswaan ’waasda ’la k’a Gatl’aayaan. Then he pounded off one of its (a salmon made of copper) fins.
- talk, cry, etc. in a small voice
’La xanggangaanggan. He was whimpering (in fear, trauma).
’La xang.idagan. She said "mmm" in a high-pitched voice out of happiness.
- be slow; be slow (at something)
GinnGanhan.uu ’la xangahl gud’aang. He is slow at anything.
’Agang tla.áwhliyeeGan ’la xangahl gud’aang. She is slow at dressing.
- play slow
’Amts’uwaan ’la xangahl gud’ada’iidan. He played it (music, instrument) too slow.
- be fast (at doing something)
- be early
- be too early for something/someone
- play fast
Tlii dang xangalaas! You are so fast!
Ga taaGan ’la xangalaang. He eats fast.
’La tla xangalaang. He is fast at doing things with his hands.
’La sgi xangalagan. He beat the drum fast.
Sk’in kawGaa xangala’iidang. It’s too early for seagull eggs.
Dang xangalaang. You’re early.
Diigu xangalaa? Am I early?
- own speed
Xangalayaang ’waadluuwaan.uu ’la gya.andaang. He is using all his speed.
- show shame at
Kiilang ’la xangyaanggang. He is ashamed of what he said.
Tlagu ’la ’waagan ’aa ’la xangyaanggan. She showed shame at what she had done.
- appearance of face
Kuyaas, dang xangyangee! Precious one, your face!
- stockade; palisade; wall of stone, brick, logs
Xajee tl’aswaansang kagansiidluu... When one layer of the stockade remained...
- build a stockade, wall
Xáadas xasdi.idaan. The humans started to build a fortification.
- (v) move a bit
- go ahead with what were planning, thinking about doing
Giigaang ’agang ’la xasdlagan. He went ahead with what he was thinking about doing.
- try one’s best
Dagwi.igaang ’la xasdlatl’a.aang. He is trying his best now.
have started to try one’s best
- wide 1-dimensional extended thin object
- sound resembling white noise
- collection of three or four small objects
Gandlee kwah xawyaanggang. The river is wide.
Xannjaangwee ’i xawjuugang. The window is wide.
Giyaangwee xawts’áagaang. The sail is stiff.
Kiidee xu xawdagaang. The wind rushing through the branches of the trees is making a noise.
Guus.uu tlii ’la xa xawdagaa’ahl? I wonder what (papers) he is rustling so much?
’La k’ud.ii stlan xawsk’alaagang. There are lots of spines stuck in his (wild man’s) lips.
- (v) fall off (from something) (objects such as crumbs, berries, tears, sparks, icicles, etc)
Tl’a xang xaw xawga ’iw’waan.gaangaan. Their tears kept pouring down.
Daa.isan san tajáa xayaa.asaang. You too will shine in the middle of the day.
Naaga xayaats’aang. It is sun shining into the house.
’Waak’yaan.an saasda xayee.eehlt’algan. Still, it began to sunshine from above.
sit in the sun; sun oneself
XayageeGaa Hl k’aw.aang. I’m sitting in the sunshine.
- fail to sunshine for (foods dried in sun, such as seaweed, herring roe, halibut fillets)
- be right in the sunshine (certain foods one wants to dry in the sun, ie seaweed, herring roe, sliced halibut)
Xagwee xay yahdaang. The halibut is right in the sunshine.
have dried nicely in the sun
- flying; with arm, elbow
- running, chasing fast
- filling up; providing food for
Kyaaguud ’la xi Gaydanggang. He is running around moving his arms back and forth.
Yahgusiyang.aa ’la xit’iijang. She has her hands (lit. arms) on her hips (lit. her waist).
Hawaan xagutl’adeeraa ’la xit’iijang. She is still beating the soapberries.
Tl’a xi xab’adiits’agan. They ran inside fast.
’La xits’aang. He is ambitious at gathering food.
- pretty girl or young woman with slender figure
- (dir) fly (in direction)
Kangee diisda xiidan. Sleep flew away from me (ie I couldn’t get to sleep after staying awake too long.)
- cool by waving something near
’Ang ’la xidaang. She cooled herself by waving something (like a fan).
’Laayaa ’agang ’la xidat’aalaan. It (a spider) lowered itself toward him.
- (v) try to overthrow or destroy (a fort only)
’Waagyaan xajee tl’a xidgadang.idaanii. Then they started to try to overthrow the wall (of the fort).
- (v) seem not to feel, act like do not feel
’La st’is gam ’la xidgáng.anggang. He is acting like he doesn’t feel that he is sick.
- set off in pursuit of (in direction); start to pursue, chase (in direction)
’Laa tl’a xid.id’aawaan. They began to pursue them (on land).
Gu ’la xid.id’waang. The are racing (on foot or swimming or at work, not on vehicles).
throw rocks into the water for a distance
(v) (child) run away fast (from someone)
hemlock or spruce bast (phloem)
(n) shield (piece of armour)
- (v) measure off in fathoms (units of the distance between the ends of the fingers with the arms out-stretched)
Kwaayee ’la xi Gallgiidan. He measured off the rope in fathoms.
Kwaayee ’la xi Gallgii tlaa.algan. He measured off ten fathoms of the rope (lit. measured off a fathom ten times).
- (n) fathom
Xi Gallgii sk’ask’u ’waasd ’laa ’la sgi hlgitl’a’waayaan. They chopped off a fathom of it (log).
- rustling sound
Xil xu xihldagaang. Leaves are rustling in the wind.
- dry powdery substance, or fine droplets of liquid substance
- pretended sobbing
Gandl ’waagwii ’la ki xiijaanggan. She sprinkled water on there with a spoon.
’La xiigangaanggang. He is pretending to sob.
- white-fronted goose; laughing goose (anser albifrons)
- This bird rarely lands on Haida Gwaii, though large numbers pass overhead during the months of migration. These birds were never killed because they flew to high and rarely landed.
black brant (branta nigricans)
- medicine (various objects gathered and manipulated to bring good fortune, health)
- single-stemmed, non-branching herbaceous plant; leaf
HlGwaay xilaa.uu ’ijaan. It was the heron’s medicine.
’Aajiihl xilaadaa.ang. Use this for medicine.
Kal xil. Alder leaf.
Ginn ’waadluwaan xiilang daanggang. Everything (ie deciduous plants) is losing its leaves.
Xil taa gudsgid. Make self remember by eating medicine.
- be dry
Dii xahlii xilaang. My mouth is dry.
K’un xilaaGii ’la t’ahlagan. He put on some dry pants.
SGiw ’la tlang xila.ang. She is drying seaweed.
- let dry (in the sun)
’Aajii k’al ’waasda ’la xilaadagaangaan. He dried the skins from them (bears) as usual.
apply medicine to; administer medicine
xil da tl’asgadaa
have been given medicine, have had medicine applied to
- be dry weather; be no rain
’Adáahl xilgaagan. There was dry weather yesterday.
Gi’ansk’wee ’la tla xilgalgan. She dried the clothes (eg by hanging them outside or near a stove).
have been dried
xil gii dlagang.
yellow pond lilly (nuphar polysepalum)
labrador (or Hudson’s Bay) tea (for some speakers, both labrador tea and swamp laurel)
houseplant; plant cultivated for its flowers.
lichen species (peltigera canina)
beach wormwood (ambrosia chamissonis)
lichen (cladonia bellidiflora)
- squirm out of; take off
Gya.ansk’wee Giisdagaang ’la xing.ist’agan. He took off all his clothes.
- have taken off
Hawaan gya.ansk’wee Giisdagaang ’la xing.ist’ayaagang. He still doesn’t have his clothes on (having taken them off).
scrapper for spruce/hemlock bast (shells from the horse or california mussels were originally used for knifes)
pin down inside (because of bad weather, ie wind, rain)
- take off (bird, plane) from someplace
Suweesda xa.a xi t’ast’ahlagan. Some mallards took off from the lake.
- drinking, sucking
- using wind, with sail
Gahl ’la xu naanggan. He just pretended to drink it.
Tajuwee Gadgaats’aawee xu xusdagan. The wind broke the window.
Tajuwee xu hlgijuugan. The wind was blowing hard.
’Aadlan Hl xu Gatl’a.agan. I arrived here quickly by sail.
- bail out; pump out
Gat’anee ’waasda ’la xudagan. He bailed the bilge water out of it.
- (v) be blown about on the sea (boat or occupant)
San sGask’u sii.isguud ’la xudganggwaangaan. He was blown about on the sea for a whole day.
- be bloated; be puffed up
Tsiinee xugaa dab.uwaanggan. The salmon were lying bloated here and there.
Sabliigee xugaagang. The bread has risen big.
- repeatedly whistle loudly
Ja.adeega ’la xu hlkilgangaanggan. He kept whistling loudly at the girls.
- conjecture, speculate out loud (about something/someone)(saying something)
Tlagu ’la ’isdagan ’waaga xundagan. They (strangers, children) speculated about how he did it.
(v) gust (wind)
Tajuwee xusgiidan. There was a gust of wind (the wind gusted).
- hit, carried by a single gust of wind (rain)
Dalee xu skiisgiidan. The rain hit with a gust of wind.
Diigwii dalee xu skiisgiidan. The rain hit me with a gust of wind.
- sing; whistle (robin or thrush)
Wiid xu sk’áaysahldaang. A thrush is beginning to whistle.
- winnow leaves, etc. out of by blowing on (ie berries)
SGidluwee ’la xust’agan. She winnowed the leaves from the red huckleberries by blowing them.
- winnow leaves, etc. out of with the wind
Hldaanee ’la xust’adagan. She winnowed the leaves from the blueberries by using the wind.
balloon (blowing sack-like object)
- bailer; bilge pump
- the Pleiades (a star cluster in the Taurus constellation)
grizzly bear (don’t live on Haida Gwaii)
- have grizzly bear for crest
- be grizzly bears in location
I’m proud of it!
fresh water spring; springwater
- be a spring in location
’Aajii tlageegu xwa.aduwaagang. There is a spring at this place.
frilly or ruffled clothing; swollen hands or feet
K’un ’i xwaahljuu. Panties.
(n) canvas; denim; gunny sack; burlap bag, sack
- xwaasdaa gwa.alee
be canvas, denim
have frozen (ie potatoes)
- feel cold
- from cold
Danggu xwii? Are you cold?
Gint’asga dii xwii kinggan. The cold forced me to look for a blanket.
Dii xwii k’usaanggang. I am coughing because of the cold.
- have the chills
- begin to feel cold
Dii xwii.idaang. I have the chills.
always feel cold
- have goosebumps (person or body parts)
Dii xyee xwii tsalsdiijang. My arms have goosebumps.
(dismay, especially at a mistake)
- have wings
Hiik’waan ’la xyaagaagaan. But it had wings.
tie someone’s arms behind his/her back
Xyaahl sGwaansang tl’a ’isdagan. They did one dance.
Xáadas xyaalaagee. Haida dance
- (tidal current) flow; flow; leak
- channel (open at both ends)
’Lanngee gyaa.ugu Gandl xyaangaanii. A stream flowed at the edge of town.
Ganneesda Gandlee xyaantl’a.aang. The water is leaking out of the bucket.
K’iis gwaayee Gaadii xyaantl’a.ageegu ginn ’iw’waan Gusdlaa dlu.udadaas. Something real big (a monster) was lying in the channel between Langara Island (and this island).
flow in large volume
- at the juncture of a stream
Gandlee xyaan sGwaansangeegu ’la nuwaang. He is living at the juncture of the rivers.